Identity And Self-Esteem Angela Oswalt, MSW During early childhood, children start to develop a "self-concept," the attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that they believe define them. By age 3, between 18 and 30 monthschildren have developed their Categorical Self, which is concrete way of viewing themselves in "this or that" labels. For example, young children label themselves in terms of age "child or adult", gender "boy or girl", physical characteristics "short or tall", and value, "good or bad.
Define and describe the self-concept and its influence on information processing. Describe the concept of self-complexity, and explain how it influences social cognition and behavior.
Review the measures that are used to assess the self-concept. Differentiate the different types of self-awareness and self-consciousness. We know this because of some interesting experiments that have been done with animals.
In one study Gallup,researchers painted a red dot on the forehead of anesthetized chimpanzees and then placed the animals in a cage with a mirror. When the chimps woke up and looked in the mirror, they touched the dot on their faces, not the dot on the faces in the mirror.
This action suggests that the chimps understood that they were looking at themselves and not at other animals, and thus we can assume that they are able to realize that they exist as individuals. Most other animals, including dogs, cats, and monkeys, never realize that it is themselves they see in a mirror.
A simple test of self-awareness is the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror. Humans and chimpanzees can pass the test; dogs never do. By age 2, the infant becomes aware of his or her gender as a boy or a girl. By the time they are in grade school, children have learned that they are unique individuals, and they can think about and analyze their own behavior.
They also begin to show awareness of the social situation—they understand that other people are looking at and judging them the same way that they are looking at and judging others Doherty, Development and Characteristics of the Self-Concept Part of what is developing in children as they grow is the fundamental cognitive part of the self, known as the self-concept.
The self-concept is a knowledge representation that contains knowledge about us, including our beliefs about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, as well as the knowledge that we exist as individuals.
Throughout childhood and adolescence, the self-concept becomes more abstract and complex and is organized into a variety of different cognitive aspects, known as self-schemas.
Children have self-schemas about their progress in school, their appearance, their skills at sports and other activities, and many other aspects, and these self-schemas direct and inform their processing of self-relevant information Harter, By the time we are adults, our sense of self has grown dramatically.
In addition to possessing a wide variety of self-schemas, we can analyze our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and we can see that other people may have different thoughts than we do. We become aware of our own mortality. We plan for the future and consider the potential outcomes of our actions.
At times, having a sense of self may seem unpleasant—when we are not proud of our appearance, actions, or relationships with others, or when we think about and become afraid of the possibility of our own death. On the other hand, the ability to think about the self is very useful. Being aware of our past and able to speculate about the future is adaptive—it allows us to modify our behavior on the basis of our mistakes and to plan for future activities.
When we do poorly on an exam, for instance, we may study harder for the next one or even consider changing our major if we continue to have problems in the major we have chosen.
All of the 20 items in the measure are exactly the same, but the person is asked to fill in a different response for each statement.
Try it for yourself, at least five times:Self-concept tends to be more malleable when people are younger and still going through the process of self-discovery and identity formation. As people age, self-perceptions become much more detailed and organized as people form a better idea of who they are and what is important to them.
Historical Examples. of self-formation. I am mistaken, if we do not recognise in his instance two very interesting qualities of life: predisposition and self-formation. Curiosities of Literature, Vol.
1 (of 3) Isaac D'Israeli. All real knowledge involves a spiritual creation, an . Nov 12, · Critically compare and contrast two theories that have been used to explain the formation of the self concept.
Use relevant research to illustrate your answer. Self schemas allows us to build a self- concept of one self, this is often a cognitive aspect of the self. Dec 05, · The different categories of self that influences individuals on a personal level found in the self-discrepancy theory is in contrast to the group perception if self (Strauman, ) represented in the alternative theory of self concept, self-categorisation developed by Turner (, as cited in Hogg & Vaughan, ) describing the formation of.
Apr 16, · Self-concept tends to be more malleable when people are younger and still going through the process of self-discovery and identity formation. As people age, self-perceptions become much more detailed and organized as people form a better idea of who they are and what is important to them.
Jun 10, · Self-concept is basically a mental picture of your identity as a man. For instance, convictions, for example, "I am a decent companion" or "I am a .